Can be applied to individuals of any age, in any environment; Can give the individual a sense of control in an environment (if personal responsibility is assumed) Explains how cultural/societal norms effect perception; Helps educators understand reasoning for student's perception … Model’s basic components were derived from Lewin’s work of value-expectancy in which decision is predicted from the value of outcome and the expectation that action will result in this outcome (Becker et al., 1977). The aim of this essay is to describe health belief model (HBM) and protection motivation theory (PMT), their application to screening behaviour, prediction they offer and some of the research done in the area. However, response cost or barriers might inhibit coping behaviour (Conner & Norman, 2005). Overall, Chang at al. Consequently, it is necessary to consider carefully how this knowledge is used in intervention. Reason behind this is that sometimes screening behaviour relates to sexual organs or other sensitive areas (for example rectum) and requires attendance at clinic. The aim of this essay is to describe health belief model (HBM) and protection motivation theory (PMT), their application to screening behaviour, prediction they offer and some of the research done in the area. These authors identified that neuroticism is related to tendency to worry about one’s health and inflate perception of disease symptoms. My vulnerability of contracting the illness (or it getting worse). Existence of internal (for example symptoms) or external (for example advice) cues to action and various demographic and sociopsychological variables was also identified. According to Orbell, Perugini, & Rakow (2004), there are personal differences which influence whether individual concentrates on more immediate needs or future implications and this needs to be accounted for when intervention is designed. Health promoting behaviors can lead to a patient‟s overall sense of well-being as well as protection from disease and chronic illnesses. The HBM derives from psychological and behavioral theory with the foundation that the two components of health-related behavior are 1) the desire to avoid illness, or conversely get well if already ill; and, 2) the belief that a specific health action will prevent, or cure, illness. Strengths. The reasons for these are various. The model’s generic presumption is that if a person thinks that illness can be prevented, and also has a positive expectation that by taking action this condition can be avoided and, furthermore, if the person believes that he or she can successfully perform this action and benefits outweigh the cost of new behaviour, then this person is likely to perform health protecting behaviour (McCaskill, 2006). After completing 3. It was encouraging to see that literature (Conner & Norman, 2005) has recognised existence of rewards which can keep the maladaptive behaviour going, for example pleasure that maladaptive behaviour can bring (intrinsic) and social approval/expectation for this behaviour (extrinsic) which were not accounted for in original Hovland’s model (Conner & Norman, 2005). Another research that considers psychological factors which are important in application of HBM is the study concentrating on personality through five-factor model by Vollrath, Knoch, & Cassano published in 1999. Nola Pender’s nursing theory gave much focus on health promotion and disease prevention making it stand out from other nursing theories. On the other hand, a good example where knowledge can become a barrier to some extent are findings reported by McCaskill (2006) which suggest that fear of death and physical disment as a result of discovering breast cancer can lead to denial and hinder cancer screening behaviour. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Perceived vulnerability and severity of the illness have promoted attendance for skin screening examination but only in univariate analysis and these results disappeared in multivariate analysis. Health motivation has the potential to influence threat perception (perceived susceptibility and severity), behavioural evaluation (perceived benefits and barriers) and cues to action. Strengths of the Theory Employee expectations are boosted by rewards and incentives. True or false: To learn strengths and weaknesses of job applicants, interviewers should ask applicants about their professional lives and their personal lives. Psychology and Health, 19(6), 719-735. There are also four flaws of Trait Theory. The Health Belief Model and prediction of dietary compliance: A field experiment [Electronic version]. However no causal relationships were described, which made it harder for the model to be well understood and applied (Becker et al., 1977). Strength of Drive-Reduction Theory Explains our motivation to reduce arousal by meeting basic needs, such as hunger or thirst. Psychology Seven of these evaluated studies concentrated on screening behaviour (for example breast examination, testicular examination, hepatitis screening, dental screening/preventive visits). Today the focus will be on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) which is an adaption of the Health Belief Model developed by [tooltip content=”Rogers, R.W. (2000) have conducted a meta-analytic review of PMT. This finding is yet more significant when one considers that knowledge was associated with perceived benefits and barriers to preventing TB in Chang at al. New York: Guilford Press. It would be wise to come back to the definition of protection motivation now. It is made up of a number of constructs (see figure 1). In case of this essay the performed behaviour is health screening. J Psychol. (2007) research, it has been pointed out that lack of accessibility of screening facilities presents a significant barrier to act (but not to intention to act). Procedure, measures and analyses were also described in detail, however, it is not very clear how was the health professional recommendation delivered and lack of this crucial information brings the quality of this study down. In J. Cacioppo & R. Petty (Eds. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change [Electronic version]. Breast health behavior among lesbians: The role of health beliefs, heterosexism, and homophobia [Electronic version]. How to develop a set of questions for a semi-structured interview: academic and commercial differences. Screening: a definition. In conclusion, this analytic review offers support for PMT model and its applicability to health behaviour, including screening behaviour. Further research seemed to have recognised this weakness and other variables were added, for example past experience, self-efficacy or personality (Conner & Norman, 2005). Inflexible – It should be acceptable to break an unhelpful rule if the situation warrants it. According to NHS website screening is a public health service generally aimed at certain population. Protection Motivation Theory was originally developed to test how fear influenced individuals to change their health behaviours.  [tooltip content=”Rogers, R.W. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Achievement motivation is essentially a need for success or accomplishments. When faced with a difficult task, people who have high self-efficacy will face the challenge as something to be learned and mastered. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Protection motivation theory. (2000). Chang at al. It is … They both have their similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages and, moreover, they have a potential to complement each other. Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths. Both models (health belief model and protection motivation theory) have been successful in predicting screening behaviour. Practitioners working in this way have to work in collaboration - helping people to do things for themselves. Identifying Influencers Using the Pagerank Analysis. His main interests are in strategy development, social marketing, digital marketing, advertising, consumer behaviour and marketing application. It is … Difference between these two definitions will be reasoned later. Hass, J. W., Bagley, G. S. and  Rogers, R. W.(1975) Coping with the energy crisis: Effects of fear appeals upon attitudes toward energy consumption. He believed in effectance motivation which he describes in a 1959 paper as stated in Schunk, Meece, and Pintrich 's Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications as: Fitness or ability, and the suggested synonyms capability, efficiency, proficiency, and skill. Their interest and motivation in mastering the task will drive them to succeed in their difficult, yet approachable goal (Pajares & Schunk, 2001). Strengths. Although Azzarello and Jacobsen (2007) openly discussed limitations, they do not offer any explanation to why self-efficacy and response efficacy have failed to show significant results. Trait Theory Weaknesses. The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. Azzarello, L. M., & Jacobsen, P. B. Although this is a commonly accepted theory, with strengths such as the belief that a child's negative behaviors can change with a change in her environment, it also comes with weaknesses… The advantages of PMT are recognition of self-efficacy and, more importantly, possibility of maladaptive response, why does this happen and how it can be changed. Rogers' revised Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) (21) is a major health psychology theory aimed at explaining the cognitive mediation process of behavioral change in terms of threat and coping appraisal. Kantola, S. J. , Syme, G. J. and  Nesdale, A. R. (1983) The Effects of Appraised Severity and Efficacy in Promoting Water Conservation: An Informational Analysis, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 13 Issue 2 (April 1983), Pages 99-190. Response effectiveness is knowing what to change. These findings are contradictory to results reported by Milne at al. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Developing Semi-Structured Interview Questions: An Inductive Approach. Orbell, S., Perugini, M., & Rakow, T. (2004). Helmes, A. W. (2002). Since then research has concentrated in two main areas: where PMT has been used to develop persuasive communication and as a tool to predict health behaviour (Conner & Norman, 2005). PMT, GI, II constructs, and a modified SB questionnaire were completed by undergraduate students. self-efficacy (e.g. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Weaknesses: 1. HBM has a long research history and broad applicability and it is the most widely used framework for understanding and predicting health behaviours (McCaskill, 2006). The Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation The Vroom Expectancy Theory is “based on the premise that felt needs cause human behavior” and that motivation strength depends on an individual's degree of desire to perform a behavior (Certo & Certo, 2008). Robert W. White (1920-1975) White was one of the early intrinsic motivation theorists. Disabling cookies may prevent our website from working efficiently. PMT was developed by Rogers in order to understand the impact of fear appeals (Conner & Norman, 2005; Milne, Sheeran, & Orbell, 2000). 'I am confident that I can change my diet'); Conner, M. & Norman, P. (Eds). Yarbrough, S. S., & Braden C.J. Robert W. White (1920-1975) White was one of the early intrinsic motivation theorists. The purpose of this paper is to explore how PMT can be used and expanded to inform and improve public safety … This has not been discussed and it might provide some explanations of why are people at indigenous areas at much higher risk. Health professional can in a way become a cue to action. Reference this. August 24, 2017 ... as technology and properties in particular needed legal protection and workers needed to be disciplined in a consistent way. Both competing models will be defined later, however, there is a need for brief definition of screening now. Firstly, even though one might wish for people to act in a health protecting way without a clear danger, it probably does not happen very often. The multiattribute utility model defines screening as “a behaviour employed by health care consumers to maximise health gains” (Yarbrough & Braden, 2001, p. 678). Vice versa, person with high orientation on future is more likely to attend screening when long term consequences of the screening are positive and immediate outcomes are negative. In the end, decision will be made on which model offers the best understanding and prediction of screening behaviour. A protection motivation might be an intention to adopt or adhere to a fitness program. If it is defined as an intention to perform a recommended behaviour/advice (Conner & Norman, 2005) then this definition would have to be considered too narrow. If this is not the case then maladaptive behaviour in form of denial or avoidance can be used as a way for reducing fear (Conner & Norman, 2005). Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Strengths and weaknesses of the three theories. Since 1950s many researchers (for example Hochbaum, Zola, Rosenstock, Suchman) concentrated on developing theoretical models which would explain health related behaviours (Becker, Maiman, Kirscht, Haefner, & Drachman, 1977). The Contingency approach is a management theory that helps the manager to adopt the best management style is dependent on the context of the situation. Furthermore, this association was stronger for coping appraisal than threat appraisal. Slightly contradictory is study published by Azzarello and Jacobsen (2007) investigating factors influencing participation in cutaneous screening amongst individuals with family history of melanoma. Predicting health behaviour : research and practice with social cognition models (2nd ed.). (2001). Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 60(6), Dec 1975, 754-756. Chang at al. Kurhan/dollar photo club Chang at al. In conclusion, health belief model is able to explain and predict health screening behaviour although it has its weaknesses. Personality, risky health behaviour, and perceived susceptibility to health risks [Electronic version]. 1. PMT is best summarised by 2. which will be closely described below (Conner & Norman, 2005). Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 60(6), Dec 1975, 754-756.” url=”” ]Hass et al, 1975[/tooltip]) and water ([tooltip content=”Kantola, S. J. , Syme, G. J. and Nesdale, A. R. (1983) The Effects of Appraised Severity and Efficacy in Promoting Water Conservation: An Informational Analysis, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 13 Issue 2 (April 1983), Pages 99-190.” url=”” ]Kantona et al 1983[/tooltip]).  Protection motivation theory is an educational and motivational process. 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