The Aksu List: Analysis In most cases, their photos, names, and locations indicate that they are Uyghurs from Aksu. Mission Creep A July 2020 article from the MIT Technology Review, “Predictive policing algorithms are racist. In 2003, a group of entrepreneurs set up the company Palantir, named after J. R. R. Tolkien’s seeing-stones in Lord of the Rings. * Smart Policing aims to develop and deploy “evidence-based, data-driven law enforcement tactics and strategies that are effective, efficient, and economical.” It’s an initiative that makes a lot of sense, as evidence-based and data-driven crime prevention is surely better than the alternatives. China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC), the same company that built the IJOP in Xinjiang, built an IJOP system in Yinchuan, the capital of Ningxia province, says a procurement document dated January 2020 (for RMB 280.98 million, nearly US$43 million). The police had specifically asked about her sister because she lives abroad. Yet the authorities did not allege that these detainees committed, incited, supported, or plotted any acts of violence, much less any acts that would rise to the level of terrorism. Predictive policing introduces a scientific element to law enforcement decisions, such as whether to investigate or detain, how long to sentence, and whether to parole. Many Canadian police departments are using predictive policing software, but with a twist —forecasting where a crime will take place. Government reports state that data collected via the IJOP system is also being used for a variety of vetting tasks, from screening applicants for police jobs or public services such as poverty alleviation programs, to picking out model Communist Party members. In one case, losing an ID—subsequently used by someone else—was a cause for detention. A Black Mathematician Says Scholars Need to ‘Engage’ on Predictive Policing The algorithms won’t go away, so it’s important to make them fair, says Daniel Krashen of Rutgers. Law enforcement authorities (LEAs) have begun using artificial intelligence and predictive policing applications that are likely to raise ethical, data protection, social, political and economic issues. The use of automation—which the authorities claim helps them identify those harboring the “ideological virus” of being disloyal to the Chinese Communist Party in a thorough and “precise” manner—can also lead to sloppy policing. Join our movement today. In one case, a man was subjected to “political education” because he had been detained in 2014 for 15 days for carrying a knife and for not “properly explaining” the incident. As data-based technologies become ever-more sophisticated, we’re facing a future that is increasingly affected by the use of data to influence, control and manipulate our lives. The Santa Cruz Police Department, which began predictive policing with a pilot project in 2011, had put a moratorium on the practice in 2017 when Andy Mills started as police chief. The missing piece of this Predictive policing puzzle is the Facial Recognition Tech which can’t be deemed as inaccessible, as evident by Russian Apps like FindFace: A NtechLab App Launched in the mid-2010s, where the app allowed users to take a picture of someone and match their face to their social media profiles on Russian site Vkontakte (VK). T” on the Aksu List illustrates how the program’s algorithms identify legal behaviors as grounds for detention. Human Cogs in the Machine While technology used in policing has improved, it hasn’t progressed, says Khalil Gibran Muhammad, if racial biases are built into those new technologies. Please give now to support our work, Leaked List of Over 2,000 Detainees Demonstrates Automated Repression, (New York) – A big data program for policing in China’s Xinjiang region arbitrarily selects Turkic Muslims for possible detention, Human Rights Watch said today. The person said: From 2016 to mid-2018 we were arresting people. About one in five in this group were tagged for downloading or sharing “terrorism” or “extremism” content. But this hope has to be tempered by our unfailing ability to delude ourselves in the face of evidence to the contrary, and to justify the unethical and the immoral in the service of an assumed greater good. The Aksu List contains two mobile phone numbers from outside China. Predictive Policing: Real-time crime monitoring and prediction software known as CompStat was introduced in New York City in 1994 and was gradually adopted across the country. Ningxia has the country’s highest concentration of ethnic Hui, also a Muslim (though not Turkic) minority. ... April 22, 2020 — 17:13 UTC PURCHASE AND DOWNLOAD RIGHT NOW!! C.J. “Generally acting suspiciously,” “having complex social ties” or “unstable thoughts,” or “having improper [sexual] relations.”. Human Rights Watch shared the Excel sheet with Uyghur diaspora communities from that region, who identified 18 names on the list as their immediate family members. Together the lists provide two snapshots of Xinjiang’s bureaucracy, as it picks and vets its victims in the process of coerced thought transformation: the decision to detain people and the decision to keep them in detention. If the designers of predictive policing systems believe they know who the “bad people” are, or even if they have unconscious biases that influence their perceptions, there’s a very real danger that crime prevention technologies end up targeting groups and neighborhoods that are assumed to have a higher tendency toward criminal behavior. The embedded geographic coordinates suggest that they were taken from within a large building complex previously identified as a political education camp by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a think tank. The IJOP is also repeatedly mentioned in the Karakax List. This is so-called predictive policing: the use of predictive algorithms trained on historical crime data and other data to forecast future criminal activity and allocate resources accordingly. Screenshots of the app made by a Xinjiang official showing the interface when populated with data (left), and alerts from the IJOP requiring that the official investigate individuals flagged by the system (right). They determined that the list appears authentic based on details such as detention duration and the language used. Predictive policing software uses data to plot points on a map to identify “hot spots” for criminal activity, so that departments can assign officers accordingly. At both levels, most people were flagged for their relationships, their communications (通联), or for being related to (家族人员 or 亲属), or traveling, or staying with (同行同住) someone the authorities consider suspicious. The company excels at using big data to detect, monitor, and predict behavior, based on myriads of connections between what is known about people and organizations, and what can be inferred from the information that’s available. An examination of the Aksu List suggests that the authorities consider the following behavior suspicious: In some cases, the alleged “problematic” behaviors dated to years earlier, revealing broad surveillance of legal and non-violent behavior going back decades. Human Rights Watch used various methods to verify the Aksu List: The language and terms used in the Aksu List are also consistent with those in other Xinjiang official documents that Human Rights Watch reviewed. The same Xinjiang source who provided the Aksu List also provided other audiovisual content to Radio Free Asia’s Uyghur Service between mid and late 2018. In another case, a woman was detained for once going to Kashgar, and once staying overnight in Hotan, both in 2013. Audits and research into the effectiveness of predictive policing have yielded mixed to negative assessments. Their detention dates ranged from mid-2016 to late 2018. The Aksu List does not provide any additional information on the content of such audiovisual materials. ASU Julie Ann Wrigley Global Futures Laboratory. Human Rights Watch searched the Supreme People’s Court’s database of Chinese court verdicts for these 20 people’s full names, but it did not yield results, though the court verdict database is far from comprehensive. Later on, we rarely marked someone as suspicious. We obtained two manuals that explained how the predictive policing apparatus functioned — one from 2016 and a more recent version from 2018. Human Rights Watch is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit registered in the US under EIN: 13-2875808. There is some preliminary evidence that the IJOP system itself is being used in China outside of Xinjiang. And here, there are real dangers that predictive policing systems will end up targeting people who are assumed to have bad tendencies, whether they do or not. Human Rights Watch called that number and found that it belongs to Ms. T’s sister. Human Rights Watch is confident that all the people on the Aksu List are Uyghurs. Neither the initial collection of personal data nor the sharing and use of such data involve asking for consent, illustrating how powerless Xinjiang’s residents are. Since the method works in certain cases, however, I do not encourage a complete ban on predictive policing. The big data program, the Integrated Joint Operations Platform (IJOP), apparently flagged the people on the Aksu List, whom officials then evaluated and sent to “political education” camps in Xinjiang. The list also contains nearly 200 unique ID numbers, which were checked against the ID numbers on an official website of people who have been blacklisted under China’s social credit system, run by the. We’d [go to his home and] ask, “these last few days you were working the fields? They are being held until their loyalty can be ascertained and, as needed, instilled. And if we’re serious about ensuring a just and vibrant future for everyone, we ignore this at our peril! In other words, the IJOP system is programed to pick out particular behavior, calls to a foreign number, noting the precise duration of the calls. This suggests that the authorities are increasingly sharing personal information across government agencies. There appear to be three levels: “common management” (普管区), “strict management” (严管区), and “strong management” (强管区). Having mismatched identity, including using a cellphone number or ID card not registered in one’s name, having more than one hukou (residency registration), or having falsified official documents like marriage certificates. An Amnesty International investigation found that the predictive policing system deliberately targets Eastern Europeans. There was not enough room for them all in the centers, so they built new ones.…, In the beginning when the IJOP system came live, if [we] labeled someone as suspicious during evaluation, the local village committee and the police would go and take the person into custody. The excerpt below is part of a longer piece on the dangers of using advanced technology to try and differentiate between a propensity toward “good” and “bad” behavior that riffs off the movie Minority Report (hence the references to the film below)—you can read a longer excerpt from the chapter on Medium. In the beginning we were arresting those who spread terrorism videos, those who receive or give funds to ETIM, [and] those who participated in riots, and we would send them to the local political education centers. Yet here, real life is perhaps taking us down an even more worrying path. Being young; that is, “born after the 1980s” (80, 90后不放心人员). Resisting official policies or official “management.” In one case, a man was detained for not paying rent on his land. While it is unclear how the system is being used, religious restrictions on Hui Muslims—closing mosques and Arabic-language schools, scrubbing Arabic scripts from Halal restaurants—have been on the rise in Ningxia and other Hui Muslim areas since 2019. Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Human Rights Watch analyzed this material to assess the credibility of the Excel spreadsheet, as it was obtained from the same source. The design and development of predictive policing systems are often touted as “objective” and “neutral”, but prejudices and stereotypes are embedded in the models and algorithms. The mass surveillance and arbitrary detention of Xinjiang’s Turkic Muslims violate fundamental rights under China’s constitution and international human rights law. The resolution, released by the National Speech and Debate Association on February 1, 2020, is: Palantir is just one of an increasing number of data collection and analytics technologies being used by law enforcement to manage and reduce crime. By The integration of the IJOP system with other government systems, illustrates China’s expansive definition of security and perceived need for extensive surveillance and control. Information that has recently come to light from 2018 and 2019 suggests that the IJOP is used not only for picking out targets for detention, as described in the May 2019 Human Rights Watch report, but also to provide data for Xinjiang’s larger government information system, that powers a range of government functions. Human Rights Watch “reverse engineered” the IJOP mobile app in May 2019 and revealed the dubious criteria this mass surveillance system was programmed to flag, including many lawful behaviors. Governments may prosecute speech that incites criminal acts—speech that directly encourages the commission of a crime, is intended to result in criminal action, or is likely to result in criminal action—whether or not criminal action does, in fact, result. The company largely flew under the radar for many years, working with other companies and intelligence agencies to extract as much information as possible out of massive data sets. Predictive policing, also known as analytics-driven policing, is an outgrowth of an increasing body of evidence that shows crime can be reduced if enough data can be analyzed. An examination of the Aksu List suggests that Xinjiang’s Turkic Muslims are presumed guilty until proven innocent. Later on … there were quotas for arrests in all the locales, and so we began to arrest people randomly: people who argue in the neighborhood, people who street fight, drunkards, people who are lazy; we would arrest them and accuse them of being extremists. This analysis provides Human Rights Watch with additional confidence in the authenticity of the Aksu List. Often … we asked them leading questions. September 30, 2020 — … Having relatives in a group the authorities have labeled as terrorist, including the East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and a couple of Aksu local groups. People are also detained for having no fixed address. The use of intrusive surveillance, including in and around people’s homes, also violates everyone’s right to privacy. Article 37 of the constitution states that all arrests must be approved by either the procuratorate (the state prosecution agency) or the courts. I wrote about Palantir a couple of years ago in Films from the Future, and given the company’s prominence this week, thought it was worth posting a short excerpt from the chapter below. The Aksu List: Authentication Ms. T’s sister said she has had no direct contact with her family in Xinjiang since then, but heard via an intermediary that Ms. T—presumably upon her release from a political education camp—was now working in a factory five days a week and allowed to go home only on weekends. The official said: [W]e wouldn’t be able to finish the many verification tasks if we were to go through them all seriously.… But because we’ve been working [like this] for so long, whether it is our conscience or that we are tired, right now what’s left [among officials] is just grievances and complaints; everyone wants to leave, nobody is doing this work properly. The biggest threat of predictive policing is the fact that the information it depends on is racially prejudiced and half-finished. Instead, I … In mid-2019, Human Rights Watch was able to speak with an official in the region involved in carrying out the IJOP system. Human Rights Watch first reported on the IJOP in February 2018, noting that the policing program aggregates data about people from various sensory systems in Xinjiang, and flags to officials those it deems potentially threatening. TNW News. In general it is practically impossible to disentangle the use of predictive policing tools from other factors that affect crime or incarceration rates. Some entries say the individual was detained in a camp after completing a prison sentence, and 20 list the crimes. In one case, a man was sent to political education camp because “suspicion [of him] cannot be eliminated and would require further interrogation.” The evidence suggests that, consistent with official rhetoric, political education is akin to a form of preventive detention, where people’s behaviors are deemed vaguely suspicious but not criminal. Ms. T’s sister believes Ms. T is being forced to work in a factory against her will, noting that Ms. T had been training for a different career before she was detained. In June 2020, Santa Cruz, California became the first city in the United States to ban municipal use of predictive policing, a method of deploying law enforcement resources according to data-driven analytics that supposedly are able to predict perpetrators, victims, or locations of future crimes. Human Rights Watch has shown the full Aksu List to two experts who have extensively documented Xinjiang’s repression. Those facing detention have no right to due process, including access to lawyers and family members, or a chance to stand trial to contest such allegations. The Los Angeles Police Department is dumping a controversial predictive policing program that forecasts where property crimes will happen. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Fortunately, so has the criticism. A leaked list of over 2,000 detainees from Aksu prefecture provided to Human Rights Watch is further evidence of China’s use of technology in its repression of the Muslim population. But in recent years, Palantir’s use in “predictive policing” has been attracting increasing attention. Critics say the predictive-policing program, called Pred-Pol, has led to heavier policing of minority neighborhoods. The hope is, of course, that we learn to wield this tremendously powerful technology responsibly and humanely because, without a doubt, if it’s used wisely, big data could make our lives safer and more secure. Although the sender has not been identified, the list appears to come from a part of Aksu prefecture where 80 percent of the residents are Uyghurs. According to the Aksu List, the IJOP can flag people at both the prefecture and regional levels, though it is unclear how, or if, those two levels of analysis differ. But in recent years, Palantir’s use in “predictive policing” has been attracting increasing attention. Yet Human Rights Watch research indicates that neither agency appears to be involved in these detentions. You didn’t go anywhere?” As long as they said yes, we’d fill out [the form in the app] noting the villager said he was working in the fields, he didn’t go anywhere but everything was fine. Early on, it received seed funding from the venture capital arm of the CIA, In-Q-Tel, where the chairman of the Board of Trustees is none-other than ASU’s Michael Crow. The Aksu List, dated around late 2018, is similar to another leaked file, the Karakax List. As an aside, the company also has an interesting, although indirect, link to ASU. Yet there’s growing concern that, without sufficient due diligence, seemingly beneficial data and AI-based approaches to policing could easily slip into profiling and “managing people” before they commit a criminal act. At both stages, the IJOP system assists officials in selecting targets. ... 2020 — 17:58 UTC Thomas Macaulay. In August, Radio Free Asia’s Uyghur Service provided Human Rights Watch with an Excel spreadsheet titled “List of IJOP Trainees” with the names of over 2,000 people obtained from an anonymous Xinjiang source in late 2018. Big Sky Debate is pleased to release its March-April 2020 NSDA Lincoln- Douglas resources on predictive policing! About half of the list are men and the other half women. In the US, much of this comes under the banner of the “Smart Policing Initiative,” which is sponsored by the US Bureau of Justice Assistance. Predictive Policing or Targeted Harassment? From Films from the Future (2018), Mango Publishing. 29 September 2020, 13:45 UTC. The sheet has columns that include the person’s name, gender, the date of their detention in a political education camp, the reason for their detention, the number of their detention facility or cell, the batch number from which the IJOP systems picked them out, and the reason why, usually no more than a sentence or two. A study argues this has major implications for … One of the more prominent concerns raised around predictive policing is the dangers of human bias swaying data collection and analysis. Naturally, despite the benefits of data-driven crime prevention (and they are many), irresponsible use of big data in policing opens the door to unethical actions and manipulation, just as is seen in Minority Report. Special thanks to Yael Grauer for additional writing and research. Human Rights Watch’s analysis of the Aksu List strongly suggests that the vast majority of the people flagged by the IJOP system are detained for everyday lawful, non-violent behavior. A coalition of civil rights groups, including the American Civil Liberties Union and the Electronic Frontier Foundation issued a statement criticizing the tendency of predictive policing to proliferate racial profiling. Known for its cutting-edge use of big data to support security info and interventions—especially with three letter agencies—the company is also known for its controversial work on predictive policing. The entry for “Ms. In one case, a man was detained for having studied the Quran in the mid-80s, and having “let his wife wear a veil” in the early 2000s. Opposition groups even gathered academics to speak out against the use of PredPol. But critics often miss the deeper and older problem: the preventive principle of police. Kanagawa police near Tokyo hope to put a predictive policing system into practice on a trial basis before the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, sources said. The list includes detainees flagged by a Chinese predictive policing program, called the Integrated Joint Operations Platform (IJOP), which collects data and identifies candidates for detention. This leads to discriminatory results, with higher risk scores for certain groups. ئۇيغۇر تىلىدىكى قىسقىچە مەزمۇنى ۋە تەۋسىيەلىرىنى چۈشۈرۈڭ: Türkçe dilinde rapor özeti ve tavsiyeleri indirmek için tıklayınız. Notably, three cases in the Aksu List suggest that people are treated with different levels of “strictness” depending on their level of obedience, and that people who disobey or “talk back” are placed in areas with stricter management. We also obtained a sample of emailed daily intelligence summaries and four “actionable intelligence” presentations created by … Column F appears to be the reasons officials give for detaining a person. Home ... 27. The information is uploaded to the Xinjiang Traffic Police Headquarters in a timely manner. 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