The following types of theories can be distinguished in different strands: focus on effective outcomes, on accommodation or adaption, on identity negotiation and management, on communication networks, on acculturation and adjustment. Relate to common experiences between the source and destination. Misunderstandings with nonverbal communication can lead to miscommunication and insults with cultural differences. Les stratégies de convergence et de divergence ne sont pas mutuellement exclusives [52]; la TAC considère l’interaction comme changeante et dynamique. Lakshmi est quelqu’un qui s’auto-identifie de manière stable, elle sait qu’elle est étudiante et fiancée et est donc curieuse et intéressée par la culture de Maxime. Celles-ci vont faire émerger de futures intentions qui modifieront l’orientation de départ lors de la prochaine interaction[42]. Deardorff [68] et Lloyd et Härtel [69] identifient trois catégories de la compétence interculturelle : cognitive, affective et comportementale. La Théorie de l’Accommodation communicative (Communication Accommodation Theory) ou TAC est une théorie se situant dans le courant de la communication interculturelle interactionniste[2]. Occulesics are a form of kinesics that includes eye contact and the use of the eyes to convey messages. En prenant en compte la perception qu’ont les individus par rapport à la situation, elle adopte un point de vue tant subjectiviste qu’objectiviste de la communication interculturelle. Situationally speaking competence can be defined differently for different cultures. It is about the broader exchange of ideas, beliefs, values, and views. Ces deux dimensions[54] donnent des indications quant à la tendance plus ou moins élevée à l’identification à l’endogroupe. En revanche, dans un réseau interculturel, les membres ne partagent pas la même culture et il existe plus de différences entre eux. Language is an example of an important cultural component that is linked to intercultural understanding. Later on, a theory was founded that has three layers of intercultural communication. The main theories for cross-cultural communication are based on the work done looking at value differences between different cultures, especially the works of Edward T. Hall, Richard D. Lewis, Geert Hofstede, and Fons Trompenaars. Crofts Wiley, Stephen B. Lakshmi, est étudiante et habite en Inde. Kim[26] propose 3 théorèmes pour cette théorie. While it is fair to say that there is no single leading theory of intercultural competence, some of the well-known theories are worth noting. Appartenant à une société plutôt collectiviste, elle va s’identifier fortement avec son endogroupe, celui des indiens, et cela va influencer les stratégies d’accommodation utilisées dans la communication. [14], Intercultural communication is competent when it accomplishes the objectives in a manner that is appropriate to the context and relationship. 2. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion En 2002, le champ de la communication interculturelle comptait une quinzaine de théories recouvrant les différents aspects de celle-ci. Dans le cadre de ces dernières, les dimensions de l’individualisme et du collectivisme expliquent l’importance accordée, au sein d’une culture donnée, à l’individu ou au groupe[53]. These factors, combined with the person's cultural and racial identity and level of liberalism, comprise that person's potential for adaptation. People from diverse cultures seemed to be getting much more closer to … Parmi les auteurs prônant l’existence d’une compétence interculturelle générale, certains optent pour une approche biologisante et tentent de trouver les traits de personnalité liés à la compétence interculturelle[65]. The DMIS is grounded theory; it is based on observations made in both academic and corporate settings about how people become more competent intercultural communicators. ", in: R.L. Cross-cultural communication endeavours to bring together such relatively unrelated areas as cultural anthropology and established areas of communication. De plus, la communication interculturelle se situe à l’intersection de plusieurs disciplines telles que la communication, l'anthropologie, la sociologie et la psychologie. Non-verbal communication; edited by R. A. Hinde. La première est le rapport à l’espace : il existerait différents types de distances interpersonnelles (intime, personnelle, sociale, publique). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Themes and topics discussed include identity and communication, intercultural verbal and nonverbal processes and interactions, relationships, and … Objectives. Durant le moment de l’interaction, les personnes vont s’accommoder psychologiquement : elles vont adapter leurs motivations et intentions à utiliser la stratégie de convergence ou de divergence. Communicative competence is defined as thinking, feeling, and pragmatically behaving in ways defined as appropriate by the dominant mainstream culture. La « convergence » est celle à travers laquelle les personnes « accommodent », adaptent leur comportement communicationnel afin qu’il soit plus semblable à celui de leur interlocuteur[42]. À travers ces propositions, la théorie analyse la communication entre deux individus ayant une orientation de départ concernant celle-ci[42]. D’autres facteurs tels que les expériences, les habiletés, le contexte situationnel, les coûts et bénéfices perçus influencent la manière dont les membres de la co-culture communiquent avec le groupe dominant. La première est la phase « d’essai-erreur » où les individus vont chercher des similarités ou des identités communes avec l’Autre. Theories of Intercultural Communication. Rymes, (2008). In monochronic cultures, time is experienced linearly and as something to be spent, saved, made up, or wasted. La « face » est définie par Ting-Toomey comme « la présentation d'une image de soi digne à un autre individu dans les relations interpersonnelles Task role behaviour: initiate ideas that encourage problem solving activities. Especially for business people or people providing services in the areas out of their culture. The convergence theory of intercultural communication. 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